February 17, 2008, Kosovo declared its independence from Serbia. The United
States and 22 of the 27 EU countries (including key countries such as
Germany, France, Britain, and Italy) have recognized Kosovo’s
independence. The Kosovo government claims that 98 countries in all have extended
diplomatic recognition to it. When it declared independence, Kosovo pledged to implement
the Comprehensive Proposal for the Kosovo Status Settlement, drafted by U.N.
envoy Martti Ahtisaari. The document contains provisions aimed at
safeguarding the rights of ethnic Serbs and other minorities. EULEX, a
European Union-led law-and-order mission, is tasked with improving the
rule of law in Kosovo. KFOR, a NATO-led peacekeeping force that includes hundreds
of U.S. soldiers, has the mission of providing a secure environment.
Serbia strongly objects to Kosovo’s declaration of independence. It has used
diplomatic means to try to persuade countries to not recognize Kosovo. It
has retained parallel governing institutions in Serb-majority areas in
Kosovo. Since March 2011, the EU has mediated negotiations between Serbia
and Kosovo. The agreements reached include ones on free movement of persons,
customs stamps, recognition of university diplomas, cadastre (real estate)
records, civil registries (which record births, deaths, marriages, etc.
for legal purposes), integrated border/boundary management (IBM), and on
regional cooperation. However, the accords have not been implemented or only partly
Kosovo faces other daunting challenges, aside from those posed by its struggle
for international recognition and the status of its ethnic minorities.
According to reports by the European Commission, the country suffers from
weak institutions, including the judiciary and law enforcement. Kosovo has
high levels of government corruption and powerful organized crime networks.
Many Kosovars are poor and reported unemployment is very high.
The United States has supported the EU-brokered talks between Serbia and
Kosovo, but has stressed that it is an observer, not a participant in
them. On September 10, 2012, the White House issued a statement by
President Obama hailing the end of international supervision of Kosovo. He said
Kosovo has made “significant progress” in “building the building the
institutions of a modern, multi-ethnic, inclusive and democratic state.”
He added Kosovo had more work to do in ensuring that the rights enshrined
in the country’s constitution are realized for every citizen. President
Obama also called on Kosovo to continue to work to resolve outstanding issues
with its neighbors, especially Serbia.
Since U.S. recognition of Kosovo’s independence in 2008, congressional action
on Kosovo has focused largely on foreign aid appropriations legislation.
Aid to Kosovo has declined significantly in recent years. In FY2012,
Kosovo received an estimated $67.45 million. For FY2013, the Administration
requested a total of $57.669 million for Kosovo. Of this amount, $42.544
million is aid for political and economic reforms from the Economic
Support Fund, $10.674 million from the International Narcotics Control and
Law Enforcement account, $0.7 million in IMET military training aid, $3
million in Foreign Military Financing, and $0.75 million in NADR aid to assist non-proliferation
and anti-terrorism efforts.
Date of Report: January 23, 2013
Number of Pages: 12 Order Number: RS21721 Price: $29.95
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